Hussain was exiled to Cyprus, eventually dying in Amman

 [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia] Timeline Saudi ArabiaReturn to home CIA Factbook: Docs: 5,000 princes controlled all power and resources.    (WSJ, 11/12/03, p.A18)Saudi Arabia holds the Koran as its constitution.    (Econ, 6/23/07, p.56)The capital is Riyadh. Sunni Muslims comprise the majority and Shiite Muslims are the minority and live mostly in impoverished villages in the oil-rich eastern part of the country.    (WSJ, 10/14/95, p.A-11)Religious purity called for deceased non-Muslims to be sent abroad for internment.    (WSJ, 4/9/02, p.A1)Saudi Arabia is about 1/5 the size of the US.    (SSFC, 10/9/05, Par p.27)c1AD        Nabatean masons carved tombs into solid rock in Madain Salah near Madinah.    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)500-600    Arabs about this time brought back home from India the numerals we refer to as Arabic numbers.    (SFEC, 1/23/00, Z1 p.2)500-600    The Arabian city of Ubar, disappeared in the early 6th century. The event was later cited by Muhammad in the Quran. In 1992 a team of investigators announced the discovery of he long lost Arabian city of Ubar. George Hedges (1952-2009), a Hollywood litigator, and filmmaker Nicholas Clapp, participated in the find. Clapp later authored “The Road to Ubar: Finding the Atlantis of the Sands” (1999).    (WSJ, 3/20/09, p.A12)570        Jan 19, Mohammed (d.632), "The Prophet", founder of Islam and speaker in the “Koran,” was born into the Quraysh tribe in Makkah. He was orphaned at an early age and found work in a trade caravan. He married a wealthy widow and this gave him the freedom to visit Mount Hira each year to think. His birthday is observed on the 12th day of Rabi ul'Awwal, the 3rd month of the lunar calendar, in a festival known as Mawlid-al-Nabi. The Koran was probably not fixed for the 1st two centuries after the emergence of Islam.    (ATC, p.59)(SFC, 7/6/98, p.A14)(WSJ, 11/15/01, p.A16)(Econ, 4/28/07, p.97)610        Apr 6, Lailat-ul Qadar: The night that the Koran descended to Earth. Muhammad is believed by his followers to have had a vision of Gabriel. The angel told him to recite in the name of God. Other visions are supposed to have Gabriel lead Muhammad to heaven to meet God, and to Jerusalem to meet Abraham, Moses and Jesus. These visions convinced Mohammad that he was a messenger of God.    (ATC, p.59)(MC, 4/6/02)620        Aug 22, This day corresponds to the 27th day of Rajab, 1427, in the Islamic calendar. It commemorates to the night flight of Muhammad on the winged horse Buraq to the farthest mosque, usually identified with Jerusalem, and then to heaven and back.    (WSJ, 8/8/06, p.A10)(        Mohammad gained about a hundred converts including some wealthy Meccan families. This made other Meccans hostile. Mohammad in this year dreamed of being transported from Mecca to the Rock of Mariah in Jerusalem, from which he ascended into heaven and received instructions from God for himself and his followers.    (ATC, p.59)(ON, 7/03, p.6)622        Jul 16, Islamic Era began. Mahomet began his flight from Mecca to Medina (Hegira).    (MC, 7/16/02)622        Sep 20, Prophet Mohammed Abu Bakr arrived in Jathrib (Medina).    (MC, 9/20/01)622AD        Sep 24, In the Hegira Muhammed left Mecca for Medina (aka Yathrib) with 75 followers. This event marked the beginning of the Islamic lunar calendar. The new faith was called "Islam," which means submission to Allah. Believers in Islam are called Muslims-- "Those who submit to Allah's will." In Medina Mohammad tried to unite the Jews and Arabs and initially faced Jerusalem to pray. The Jewish leaders did not accept Mohammad as a prophet and so Mohammad expelled from the city the Jews who opposed him. From then on he commanded the Muslims to face the Kaaba in Mecca when praying.    (V.D.-H.K.p.19)(ATC, p.60)622        The Constitution of Medina was drafted by the Islamic prophet Muhammad about this time. It constituted a formal agreement between Muhammad and all of the significant tribes and families of Yathrib (later known as Medina), including Muslims, Jews, and pagans.    (        Muslims engaged non-believers for the 1st time at the Battle of Badr.    (    Several Jewish clans in the Arabian peninsula joined forces with an Arab tribe, the Quraysh, to make war on a renegade Qurayshi named Mohammad, who claimed he was a prophet of God.    (Econ, 8/14/10, p.68)630AD        Mohammad raised an army of 10,000 and took over Mecca (Makkah). He immediately set out to destroy all the idols at Kaaba. The black stone remained embedded in the corner. The area around became the first mosque, or Muslim house of worship. Mohammad returned from Madinah and began the Islamic conquest of Arabia.    (ATC, p.60)(WSJ, 11/15/01, p.A16)632        Jun 8,    Mohammed, the founder of Islam and unifier of Arabia, died. His companions compiled his words and deeds in a work called the Sunna. Here are contained the rules for Islam. The most basic are The Five Pillars of Islam. These are: 1) profession of faith 2) daily prayer 3) giving alms 4) ritual fast during Ramadan 5) Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca. The Sunna also calls for “jihad.” The term means struggle, i.e. to do one’s best to resist temptation and overcome evil.        Four contenders stood out to succeed Mohammad. They were Abu Bakr, his trusted father-in-law. Umar and Uthman, long-time friends and advisers, and Ali, a cousin and blood relative. Ali was Mohammad’s son-in-law and the father of Mohammad’s grandsons. Abu Bakr was chosen as caliph i.e. successor.    (ATC, p.60,63)(HN, 6/8/98)(SFC, 12/15/98, p.A7)(AP, 6/8/03)           Iqra, which means read in Arabic, was reportedly the first word that the archangel Gabriel spoke to Mohammed.    (SFC, 10/22/98, p.C5)        In 2001 Minou Reeves, Iranian-born scholar, authored “Muhammad in Europe: A Thousand Years of Western Myth-Making ”    (WSJ, 12/12/01, p.A15)632-661    The Rashidun Caliphate, also known as the Rightly Guided Caliphate, comprising the first four caliphs in Islam's history, was founded after Muhammad's death. At its height, the Caliphate extended from the Arabian Peninsula, to the Levant, Caucasus and North Africa in the west, to the Iranian highlands and Central Asia in the east. It was the one of the largest empires in history up until that time.    (        Aug 22, Abu Bekr Abd Allah (61), [al-Siddik], successor of Mohammed, died. He was a friend, an Arabic merchant, Mohammed’s father-in-law and the first Caliph. Before his death he appointed Mohammed's adviser Omar (Umar) as his successor.    (ATC, p.66)(PC, 1992, p.61)644        Nov 3, Umar of Arabia, the 2nd Caliph of Islam, was stabbed by Abu Lulu while leading the morning prayers at Medina. He died 4 days later on Nov 7. On his deathbed Umar named a council to choose the next caliph. The council appointed Uthman. Uthman continued to expand the Muslim empire.    (        In Saudi Arabia Uthman (Othman), the 3rd caliph, was murdered. Under his rule a full, standard text of the Quran was compiled. He had appointed members of his own family as regional governors and caused bitter jealousy among other families. This caused an angry mob of 500 to murder him. This gave Ali an opportunity to claim power. Some claim that Ali plotted Uthman’s murder. Civil war broke out. Muawija, Uthman’s cousin and governor of Syria, challenged Ali’s right to rule. Ali prepared for war but was murdered by an angry former supporter. The followers of Ali became known as Shiites from the Arabic meaning "the party of Ali." Those who believe that the election of the first three caliphs was valid and who claim to follow the Sunna reject the Shiite idea of the Imam, and are called the Sunnis.    (ATC, p.67-68)(WSJ, 1/12/08, p.A6)656        The Imam Ali mosque in Najaf marks the grave of Ali, the son-in-law of Mohammed and a central figure in Shiite Islam.    (SFC, 4/23/98, p.A16)661        Jan 24, Ali ibn Abu Talib, caliph of Islam (656-61), was murdered. Caliph Ali, son-in-law of Mohammed, was assassinated and his followers (Shiites) broke from the majority Muslim group.    (SFC, 3/16/02, p.A14)(MC, 1/24/02)855        Ahmad ibn Hanbal (b.780), Muslim scholar, died in Iraq. He is considered the founder of the 4th school of Sunni Islam. The four schools of Sunni Islam include: a) The Hanafi school, named after Imam Abu Hanifa, predominates in the territories formerly under the Ottoman Empire and in Muslim India and Pakistan; it relies heavily on consensus and analogical reasoning in addition to the Quran and sunna. B) The Maliki school, named after Malik ibn Anas, is dominant in upper Egypt and West Africa; developed in Medina, it emphasizes use of hadith (sayings or acts) that were current in the Prophet's city. C) The school of Muhammad ibn Idris ash Shafii, prevailing in Indonesia, stresses reasoning by analogy. D) The fourth legal school is that of Ahmad ibn Hanbal, which is the school adhered to in Saudi Arabia.    (        Nureddin, the ruler of Syria died. Saladin, the vizier of Egypt, married Nureddin’s widow and assumed control of both state. The Ayyubids under Saladin spent the next decade launching conquests throughout the region and by 1183, the territories under their control included Egypt, Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Hejaz, Yemen, and the North African coast up to the borders of modern-day Tunisia.    (ON, 6/07, p.5)(    Mansa Musa, king of Mali, made the 3,500 mile pilgrimage to Mecca. He traveled with a very large retinue that included 80 camels and 500 slaves. An Arab chronicler said he was surrounded by over 10,000 of his subjects.    (ATC, p.119)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)1400s        The Saud dynasty was founded near Riyadh.    (WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)1511        In Mecca, Arabia, there was an attempt to ban coffee.    (Econ, 12/20/03, p.90)1517        Jan 22, Turks conquered Cairo. Cairo and Mecca were captured by the Turks and Arabia came under Turkish rule.    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)(MC, 1/22/02)1703        Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (d.1792), Islamic theologian and founder of Wahhabism, was born in Arabia. He set out his ideas in “The Book of Unity” (1736). Wahhabism, a puritan branch of Sunni Islam, was founded by al-Wahhab in a poor part of Arabia called Najd. Saudi armies helped to spread Wahhabi Islamic reform. A Salafi, from the Arabic word Salaf (literally meaning predecessors or early generations), is an adherent of a contemporary movement in Sunni Islam that is sometimes called Salafism or Wahhabism. Salafis themselves insist that their beliefs are simply pure Islam as practiced by the first three generations of Muslims and that they should not be regarded as a sect. [see 1744]    (WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)(        Muhammad Ibn Saud was born.    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)1742-1765    In Arabia Muhammad bin Saud Al Saud allied with Wahhabists and expanded the family domain.    (Econ, 1/7/06, Survey p.6)1744        In Arabia Muhammad Ibn Saud, local ruler of Ad-Dar'ia forged a political and family alliance with Muslim scholar and reformer Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab. Abdul Aziz, the son of Ibn Saud, married the daughter of Imam Muhammad.    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)1773        Riyadh fell to Abdul Aziz.    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)1780        The Ottomans build the al-Ajyad Castle in Mecca to protect the city and its Muslim shrines from invaders. The castle was torn down by the Saudis in 2001 to make way for a trade center and hotel complex. Turkey called this a "cultural massacre."    (SFC, 1/8/02, p.A6)1792        Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (b.1703), conservative Islamic theologian, died. He founded Wahhabism and set out his ideas in “The Book of Unity” (1736). In 2004 Natana J. Delong-Bas authored “Wahhabi Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad.”    (, 7/20/04, p.D8)1801        Apr 21, Saudi Arabs led Sunni raids into Karbala, Iraq, killing about 5,000 people.    (Econ, 10/11/08, p.65)(        Saud ibn Abdul Aziz, son of Abdul Aziz, captured the Holy City of Makkah.    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)1804        The Wahhabis captured Medina, Arabia.    (NW, 9/30/02, p.33)1806        Apr 21, Saudi Arabs led Sunni raids into Najaf, Iraq, killing about 5,000 people.    (Econ, 10/11/08, p.65)(        Saud al-Saud invaded Karbala, Iraq, for the second time in 1807, but he could not occupy it.    (        The Turks dispatched Egyptian ruler Muhammad Ali to overthrow the Wahhabis and reinstate Ottoman sovereignty in Arabia.    (NW, 9/30/02, p.33)1813        The Wahhabis were driven from Mecca. They returned a century later as rulers of the new state of Saudi Arabia.    (WSJ, 7/20/04, p.D8)1814        Saud ibn Abdul Aziz died. Prior to his death Muhammad Ali Ottoman Viceroy of Egypt, retook Hijaz, captured the son of Saud ibn Abdul Aziz and executed him in Istanbul.    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)1815        Britain took action against pirate sheikhs protected by the Wahhabis, later rulers of Saudi Arabia, because ships of the East India Company were attacked in int'l. waters. Britain allied with the ruler of Muscat and Oman and Mohamed Ali of Egypt.    (WSJ, 10/9/01, p.A22)1824        The Saud family established a new capital at Riyadh.    (WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)1837        Sayyid Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi (1787-1860), an Algeria-born mendicant  founded the Sanusi, a Sufi order, in Mecca. Beida, Libya, later became the seat of the Sanusi.    (Econ, 2/26/11, p.27)(    The Saud family moved to exile in Kuwait when the Ottoman Empire conquered much of Arabia.    (WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)1865        Faisal bin Turki, the successor of Turki, died. He won control of most of Nejd and Hasa by the time of his death.    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)1880        Sadiq Bey, an Egyptian army colonel, took the first known photographs of Mecca and Medina. He traveled extensively between 1860-1880 and kept itineraries of his travels. The photos were sold to the Saudi government in 1998.    (WSJ, 6/19/98, p.W12)1883        May 20, Faisal ibn Husayn (d.1933), the 3rd son of the grand sherif of Mecca, was born in Mecca. He later became 1st king of Syria (1920) and Iraq (1921).    (        Muhammad bin Rashid, a tribal leader in Hail, captured Riyadh. Rashid had already taken much of Saud territory and concluded a pact with Turkey. Abdul Rahman bin Faisal, leader of the Al Saud family, was forced to leave.    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)1901        Dec, Abdul Aziz (Ibn Saud) left Kuwait with some 40 friends with plans to attack Riyadh.    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)1902        Jan, Abdul Aziz (Ibn Saud) made an assault on Masmak fort and recaptured Riyadh.    (WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)(NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)1902        Saud ibn Abdul-Aziz, son of ibn-Saud and brother of Faisal was born. He ruled Saudi Arabia from 1953-1964.    (        Faisal ibn Abd al-Aziz (d.1975) later king Saudi Arabia, was born.    (        Abdul Aziz regained control of the Nejd region.    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)1906-1926    Saudi forces captured the Al Hasa, Asir and Al Hijaz regions, unifying much of Arabia under Saudi rule.    (WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)1906        Abdul Aziz regained control of the Hasa region.    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)1908        Sep 1, The first railway in modern Saudi Arabia, the Hejaz railway from Jordan's border to Medina, reached Medina. This narrow gauge railway was shut down in 1915.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 6/27/12)(        Hussein (1854-1931) became Emir of Mecca and continued to 1917 when he proclaimed himself King of Hejaz, which received international recognition. He initiated the Arab Revolt in 1916 against the increasingly nationalistic Ottoman Empire during the course of the First World War.    (Econ, 3/19/11, p.93)(,_Sharif_of_Mecca)1916          May 9, The Sykes-Picot Agreement was a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France defining their respective spheres of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East. The boundaries of this agreement still remains in much of the common border between Syria and Iraq. Britain and France carved up the Levant into an assortment of monarchies, mandates and emirates. The agreement enshrined Anglo-French imperialist ambitions at the end of WW II. Syria and Lebanon were put into the French orbit, while Britain claimed Jordan, Iraq, the Gulf states and the Palestinian Mandate. Sir Mark Sykes (d.1919 at age 39) and Francois Picot made the deal.    (WSJ, 2/27/00, p.A17)(        Jun 10, Mecca, under control of the Turks, fell to the Arabs during the Great Arab Revolt. Sharif Hussein, Arab Emir of Mecca, led the revolt.    (HN, 6/10/98)(ON, 10/05, p.7)1916        Oct, T.E. Lawrence (of Arabia) met with Feisal Hussain for the 1st time.    (        Nov, T.E. Lawrence was assigned as the British liaison to Arab Prince Feisal Hussain.    (        Jul 2, An Arab army led by Feisal Hussein and Bedouin chief Auda Abu Taiya fought Turkish forces at Aqaba killing 300 and capturing 160 Turkish soldiers.    (ON, 10/05, p.8)1917        Jul 6, During World War I, Arab forces led by T.E. Lawrence and Auda Abu Tayi captured the port of Aqaba from the Turks.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 7/6/08)1918        Sep 27, Arab forces attacked and seized Deraa (Jordan).    (ON, 10/05, p.8)1918        Oct 1, The main Arab force entered Damascus (Syria).    (ON, 10/05, p.9)1918        Arab Prince Feisal took control of Syria.    (ON, 10/05, p.9)1918        Lawrence of Arabia blew up the Hijaz railway line in Saudi Arabia.    (Econ, 4/25/09, p.70)1921        The Ikhwan fighters under Abdul Aziz took the Jebelshammar region.    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)(WSJ, 1/7/02, p.A10)1921        Winston Churchill and T.E. Lawrence promoted "the sherifian solution," under which the Hashemite family-- Hussein, the sherif of Mecca, and his sons, would rule over the region under Britain's eye.    (Econ, 7/19/03, p.69)1921        At the Cairo Conference Britain and France carved up Arabia and created Jordan under Emir Abdullah; his brother Faisal became King of Iraq. France was given influence over Syria and Jewish immigration was allowed into Palestine.     (HNQ, 6/20/99)(SSFC, 10/14/01, p.D3)1923        King Fahd was born in Riyadh.    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A20)(NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)1924        Mar 3, Kemal Ataturk forced the abolition of the Muslim caliphate through the protesting assembly and banned all Kurdish schools, publications and associations. This ended the Ottoman Empire and created the modern Middle East, though Iraq, Jordan, Syria and Saudi Arabia were still colonies of Britain and France.    (WSJ, 2/11/99, p.A24)(SSFC, 10/14/01, p.A3)1924        Oct, The Kingdom of the Hijaz (later Saudi Arabia) was short lived with King Hussain abdicating in favor of his son Ali. Hussain was exiled to Cyprus, eventually dying in Amman in 1930. Ali himself departed the Hijaz in December 1925.    (        Ibn Saud, king of the Nejd, conquered Hussein's kingdom of Hijaz and launched Wahhabi rule over Saudi Arabia.    (Econ, 7/19/03, p.69)1924-1926    Abdul Aziz took Makkah, Madina and Asir.    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)1926        Jan,  Abdul Aziz was declared King of Hejaz and the Sultan of Nejd and its Dependencies.     (        Jan, Abdul Aziz became King of Hejaz, Nejd and its Dependencies.    (        May 20, Saudi Arabia became independent of Great Britain with the Treaty of Jedda.    (MC, 5/20/02)1927-1928    King Abd al-Aziz crushed an uprising be fanatical Islamist tribes of central Arabia.    (WSJ, 6/30/04, p.A7)1931        Mohammad bin Laden immigrated to Saudi Arabia from Yemen. He established a construction business and built close ties with the king.    (NW, 11/19/01, p.35)1931        Osama bin Laden was born in Jidda to a Syrian mother. He was the 17th of 51 children of Muhammad bin Laden, a baggage carrier, who left Yemen in 1931. Muhammad and his brothers were the founders of a prosperous construction company. In 2004 Jonathan Randal authored “Osama: The Making of a Terrorist.”    (SFC, 12/31/00, p.B9)(WSJ, 9/2/04, p.D16)1932